Zithromax (azithromycin) is an antibiotic that is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria, such as respiratory infections, ear infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted diseases.
How does it work?
The drug binds to bacterial ribosomes – organelles that actively partici-pate in the production of bacterial protein. Azithromycin blocks this process, due to which it significantly inhibits the normal vital activity of the pathogen, including its growth and reproduction. When a therapeutic concentration in the blood is reached, the antibiotic completely destroys all pathogenic bacteria and a quick recovery occurs.
What bacteria does it kill?
Zithromax is active against aerobic gram-positive bacteria: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, streptococcus groups C, F and G, Staphylococcus aureus; aerobic gram-negative bacteria: Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Le-gionella pneumophila, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Pasteurella multocida; anaerobic bacteria: Clostridium perfringens. The drug is also active against Chlamydia trachomatis.
Indications for use
- Infectious and inflammatory diseases caused by microorganisms sensitive to azithromycin:
- Upper respiratory tract infections and ENT organs (tonsillitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, otitis media);
- Uncomplicated urinary tract infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (urethritis and / or cervicitis);
- Lower respiratory tract infections (acute bronchitis, exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, including those caused by atypical pathogens);
- Infections of the skin and soft tissues (ordinary acne of moderate severity, erysipelas, impetigo, secondarily infected dermatoses);
- The initial stage of Lyme disease (borreliosis) – erythema migrans (erythe-ma migrans).
How to take this medicine?
The drug is taken orally 1 time per day. The bioavailability of the drug in tablet form does not depend on food intake.
Children 6 months and older are recommended to use the drug in the form of a suspension for oral administration or 125 mg tablets.
The dosage is selected by a doctor in accordance with the indications.
In rare cases, Zithromax may cause the following adverse reactions:
- dizziness, violation of taste sensations, paresthesia, drowsiness, insomnia, nervous-ness;
- candidiasis (including the mucous membrane of the oral cavity and genitals), pneumonia, pharyngitis, gastroenteritis, respiratory diseases, rhinitis;
- pseudomembranous colitis;
- leukopenia, neutropenia, eosinophilia;
- thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia;
- angioedema, reaction;
- anaphylactic reaction;
hypesthesia, anxiety, aggression, fainting, convulsions, psychomotor hyperactivity, loss of smell, perversion of smell, loss of taste, myasthenia gravis, delusions, hallucinations;
- impaired vision;
- hearing impairment, vertigo;
- hearing impairment up to deafness and / or tinnitus;
- a feeling of palpitations, flushing of the face;
- decreased blood pressure, increased QT interval on the ECG, pirouette type arrhyth-mia, ventricular tachycardia;
- shortness of breath, nosebleeds;
- nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain;
- flatulence, dyspepsia, constipation, gastritis, dysphagia, bloating, dryness of the oral mucosa, belching, ulcers of the oral mucosa, increased secretion of the salivary glands;
- discoloration of the tongue, pancreatitis;
- impaired liver function, cholestatic jaundice;
- liver failure (in rare cases with a fatal outcome mainly due to severe impairment of liver function), liver necrosis, fulminant hepatitis;
- skin rash, itching, urticaria, dermatitis, dry skin, sweating;
- photosensitivity reaction;
- Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme;
- osteoarthritis, myalgia, back pain, neck pain;
- dysuria, pain in the kidneys;
- interstitial nephritis, acute renal failure;
- metrorrhagia, testicular dysfunction;
- pain and inflammation at the injection site;
- asthenia, malaise, fatigue, swelling of the face, chest pain, fever, peripheral edema;
- a decrease in the number of lymphocytes, an increase in the number of eosinophils, an increase in the number of basophils, an increase in the number of monocytes, an increase in the number of neutrophils, a decrease in the concentration of bicarbonates in blood plasma;
- an increase in AST, ALT activity, an increase in plasma bilirubin concentration, an in-crease in plasma urea concentration, an increase in plasma creatinine concentration, a change in plasma potassium content, an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity in blood plasma, an increase in plasma chlorine content, an increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood, an increase in the number of platelets, an increase in hematocrit, an increase in the concentration of bicarbonates in the blood plasma, a change in the sodium content in the blood plasma.
Do not use this antibiotic if you have any of the following conditions/diseases:
- hypersensitivity to azithromycin, erythromycin, other macrolides or ketolides;
- hypersensitivity to excipients of the drug;
- severe liver dysfunction;
- severe renal impairment (CC <40 ml / min);
- simultaneous use with ergotamine and dihydroergotamine.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
Azithromycin gets into the placental barrier. Use of the drug during pregnancy is possible only in cases where the intended benefit to the mother outweighs the potential risk to the fetus. If it is necessary to use the drug during lactation, breastfeeding should be stopped.
There is no evidence of an overdose of azithromycin. An overdose of macrolide antibiotics may cause temporary hearing loss, severe nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. If you suspect an overdose, you should induce vomiting and immediately seek medical help.
Use the antibiotic with caution if you have myasthenia gravis; mild to moderate impaired liver function; mild to moderate renal impairment (CC> 40 ml / min); proarrhythmogenic factors (especially in old age) – congenital or acquired prolongation of the QT interval, patients using antiarrhythmic drugs of classes IA (quinidine, procainamide) and III (dofetilide, amiodarone and sotalol), cisapride, terfenadine, antipsychotic drugs (pimozide), antidepressants (citalopram), fluoroquinolones (moxifloxacin and levofloxacin), impaired water-electrolyte balance, especially with hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, clinically significant bradycardia, aritis mya or severe heart failure; or if you are taking digoxin, warfarin, cyclosporine.
Prolonged use of the drug can lead to pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile, both in the form of mild diarrhea and severe colitis. If you have antibiotic-associated diarrhea after using this drug and also 2 months after the end of therapy, pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile should be excluded.
When using Zithromax for oral administration in children, the compliance of the dosage form with the age of the patient should be strictly observed.
If you have undesirable effects associated with the nervous system and organ of vision, you should be careful when performing actions requiring an increased concentration of attention and speed of psychomotor reactions.